Friday, October 10, 2008

Kabblah and the Divine Name of God

Author: Jacob Lumbroso

In the Kabbalah, the divine name of God which is written in Hebrew using four characters YHVH, represents the concept of Midat HaRachamim ( God's Attributes of Mercy). In contrast, the more generic name used, Elokim represents, Midat HaDin( the Divine Attribute of Justice).

In the first chapter of the book of Genesis, the name Elokim is exclusively used. The Kabbalists understand this to refer to the manifestation of delineation and definition. For the Kabbalists, the use of the name Elokim in Genesis chapter one denotes the operation of the world according to well-defined natural laws. Interestingly, these well-ordered natural laws, also serve to conceal God's immanence in the world. Consequently, according to Aryeh Kaplan, as long as they are in effect, God interacts with the world on its terms and not on His.

YHVH, on other hand, relates to us God's transcendence and the impossibility that the natural laws of the universe can prevent or confine God's revelation in creation. According to the Kabbalists, the very letters denote this transcendence. Y and H refer to the past and future. V represents the temporal present in the six days of creation and the six directions of space. Thus the name, YHVH, contains the following: Hayah, (He was), Hoveh (he is) and Yihyeh (he will be). This reveals God's being in the past, present and future concurrently.

The distinction between YHVH and Elokim may be further seen in the following: Elokim is used in the account of the creation of man. This use reflects the fact that human beings possess logic, mental processes, and a physical nature derived from the name, Elokim. In a second account of man's creation in Genesis 2:7, the name YHVH is used. " YHVH Elokim formed man out of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils a soul-breath (neshamah) of life; man thus became a living creature." This passage refers to man's soul. This aspect of man is derived from the name YHVH.

Regarding the burning bush found in the book of Exodus, a transformation between the divine names Elokim and YHVH occurs. Until the time of this revelation, God had only revealed Himself to the children of Israel as Elokim. Their slavery and oppression existed in a world dictated by natural laws and human strengths (i.e. the strong conquer the weak).

At the burning bush, God reveals Himself to Moses as YHVH. At this point He will transcend the space-time divide that has "constrained" Him and promises to reveal Himself in a physical and tangible way that He has not done in the past.

Jacob Lumbroso writes articles on history, foreign cultures, and Judaism. For more information on the Tallit or other Jewish symbols, visit

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