The pyramids of Egypt, all vestiges monumental that we have inherited the Egyptians of the ancient world, including the three Great Pyramids of Giza, are both the most impressive and most emblematic of this civilization.
Tombs of kings, queens and leading figures from the State, whose construction dates for the vast majority at the beginning of the ancient Egypt, the pyramid-shaped stone hosts one or more internal chambers connected by corridors.
The Great Pyramid of Giza, built by Cheops, is part of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Mastabas of the pyramids
Mastaba, quasi-rectangular building, was the burial of rulers of the Old Kingdom.
The reasons for the passage of mastabas the pyramids are not clearly established, but it generally refers to the desire to reach heights increasingly important to demonstrate the importance and power of the pharaoh deceased. The first mastabas, Single stage, have first evolved to mastabas two floors to accommodate new structures funeral, the second floor is not as wide and high as the first.
With the beginning OF the Third Dynasty (circa -2700 to -2600), the mastabas became pyramids tell degrees, consisting of several successive stages with the overall shape of a gigantic staircase "rising skyward. The first and most famous pyramids at these levels is the pyramid Djeser at Saqqara, which was the architect Imhotep. Imhotep wanted to build a pyramid amounting degrees, like a gigantic staircase towards the sky to symbolize the ascent of the deceased of the "underground world" to "heaven".
between the pyramid degrees and the pyramid faces smooth. The rhomboid pyramid is a pyramid whose faces are smooth sections to a slope descending slopes toward the summit. The non-uniformity of the slope could be explained by difficulties architectural vis-à-vis the stability of the pyramid (original too steep slope) or his method of construction (delivery blocks up to a certain height ...) difficulties in supply (quarries, labor, geopolitical situation), or a geometric voluntary.
This type of pyramid is the final step leading to the final stage of the evolution of the pyramids in Egypt to the pyramids with smooth faces OF the Fourth Dynasty (circa -2573 to -2454); among the most famous are the pyramids of pharaohs Cheops, Chefren and Mykerinos, Giza in Cairo.
The pyramids show for their time, the general knowledge of Egyptian engineers able to reach such monuments with very rudimentary. There are many theories about the method of construction of Egyptian pyramids but specialists generally agree on many points.
Most of the stone blocks were cut in quarries near the construction site. Others were imported from the South with huge rafts. The blocks were then placed on sleds and carried the force of arms to their location.
The pyramids are not built all in the same form. There are four main forms of pyramids:
The pyramid degrees: pyramid-shaped staircase, originally a superposition of mastabas of different bases. For example, the pyramid Djeser which has six tiers, has a height of 60 meters for a base of 109 meters x 121 meters. The slices of masonry, tilted 16 degrees from vertical is 2.60 meters tall.
The pyramid rhomboid: pyramid two inclined planes, one from the bottom until the middle of the building (58 ° slope), the other towards the edge (43 ° 22 '). This slope failure due to an error of appreciation of Architects.
The pyramid slope right pyramid with four straight walls, covered with fine limestone giving them a smoother appearance. The Giza represent perfection in this field. The pyramid of Cheops was 146 meters high (currently 138 meters) for a base of 230 meters and a slope of 51 ° 50 '. Chefren That of a slope of 53 degrees for a height of 143.50 meters and a base 215 meters. As to that of Mykerinos, it measured 66 meters in height for a base of 105 meters and a slope of 51 ° 20 '.
The pyramid-shaped sarcophagus despite some markings designating them as pyramids, we think that these mausoleums are not.
Mysteries and fantasies
Traditionally, these massive stone buildings have excited the imagination of people. The main reason may be that rarely in human history, elements that allowed their buildings do meet again: a theocratic power Almighty, a country rich and prosperous, a hand-d ' large work, a hotel highly developed and a large empirical knowledge. In these circumstances it is more rewarding to contemplate these civilizations "wonders," to assign them an origin extraordinary to admit its own limitations.
The Egyptian nascent NINETEENTH century poses more questions than it could provide answers, modern myths have quickly filled the hole she had left. It will take many years to Egyptologists to break down these myths one by one, but nevertheless they are still alive and well in contemporary culture.
What remains of "mysteries" are in fact only questions not answers yet unanimous. These include: whether there are hidden chambers in the pyramid of Cheops (with the "treasures" they may contain), the exact protocol construction of the pyramids (when he was single), the period Exact construction, or the symbolism that was these monuments in the eyes of their builders.
Amr Ellaban, an Egyptian musician devoted his life in love of Egypt. visit his sites at Mysteries of the Pyramids and slow music of egypt